TREATY OF 1725 WITH TRIBES OF NOVA SCOTIA, SOME NEW ENGLAND, AREAS
The Submission and Agreement of the Delegates of the Eastern Indians (December 15, 1725, Boston, New England, British Possession)
WHEREAS the Severall Tribes of Eastern Indians vis: The Penobscot, Maridgwalk, St. John, Cape Sables and other tribes Inhabiting within his Majesty's Territories of New England and Nova Scotia who have been engaged in the present War from whom Wesauguaaram alias Loron Arexus Francois Xavier and Meganumoe are delegated and fully impowred to enter into Articles of Pacification with his majesty's Governments of the Mass Bay New Hampshire and Nova Scotia, Have contrary to the several Treaties they have Solemnly intered into with the said Governments made an open rupture and have continued some years in Acts of Hostility against the subjects of His Majesty King George within the said Governments. they being now sensible of the miseries and troubles they have involved themselves in, and being desirous to be restored to His Majesty's Grace and favour and to live in peace with all His Majesty's Subjects of the said Three Governments, The Province of New York and Colonys of Conecticutt and Phod Island and that all former acts of injury be forgotten. Have concluded to make and we Do by these presents in the name and behalf of the said Tribes make our Submission unto his most Excellent majesty George by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland,King Defender of the faith in as full and ample manner as any of our Predecessors have heretofore done.
And we do hereby promise and engage with the Honourable William Dummer Esq; as he is Lieutenant Governour and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay And with the Governours or Commanders in Chief of the Said Province for the time being. That is to say.
We the said Delegates for and in behalf of the several Tribes abovesaid Do promise and engage that at all times forever from and after the date of these presents We and They will Erase and for bear all Acts of Hostility, Infuries and discords towards all the Subjects of the Crown of Great Britain and not offer the least hurt, violence or molestation to them or any of them in their persons or Estates, But will hence forward hold and maintain a firm and Constant Amity and Friendship with all the English, and will never confederate or combine with any other nation to their prejudice.
That all the captives taken in the present War shall at or before the time of the further Ratification of this Treaty be restored without any ransom or payment to be made for them or any of them.
That His Majesty's Subjects the English Shall and may peaceably and quietly enter upon Improve and forever enjoy all and singular their Rights of God and former Settlements properties and possessions within the Eastern parts of the said province of the Massachusetts Bay Together with all Islands, inletts Shoars Beaches and Fishery within the same without any molestation or claims by us or any other Indian and be in no ways molested interrupted or disturbed therein.
Saving unto the Penobscot, Naridgwalk and other Tribes within His Majesty's province aforesaid and their natural Descendants respectively all their lands, Liberties and properties not by them convey'd or sold to or possessed by any of the English Subjects as aforesaid. As also the priviledge of fishing, hunting, and fowling as formerly.
That all trade and Commerce which hereafter may be allowed betwixt the English and Indians shall be under such management and Regulations as the Government of the Mass. Province shall direct.
If any Controversy or difference at any time hereafter happen to arise between any of the English and Indians for any reall or supposed wrong or injury done on either side no private Revenge shall be taken for the same but proper application shall be made to His Majesty's Government upon the place for Remedy or induse there of in a due course of Justice. We Submitting ourselves to be ruled and governed by His Majesty's Laws and desiring to have the benefit of the same.
We also the said Delegates in behalf of the Tribes of Indians Inhabiting within the French Territories who have assisted us in this war for a term we are fully Impowered to Act in this present Treaty. Do hereby promise and ingage that they and every of them shall henceforth cease and forbear all acts of Hostility force and violence towards all and every the Subjects of His Majesty the King of Great Britain.
We do further in behalf of the Tribe of the Penobscot Indians promise and engage that if any of the other Tribes intended to be included in this Treaty that notwithstanding Refuse to confirm and ratifie this present Treaty entered into on their behalf and continue or renew Acts of Hostility against the English. In such case and said Penobscot Tribe shall join their young men with the English in reducing them to reason.
In the next place We the aforenamed Delegates. Do promise and engage with the Honourable John Wentworth Esq; as he is Lieutenant Governour and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of New Hampshire and with the Governour and Commanders in Chief of the said province for the time being that we and the tribes we are deputed from will henceforth erase and for bear all Acts of Hostility Injuries and discords towards all the Subjects of His Majesty King George within the said province And we do understand and take it that the said Government of New Hampshire is also included and excepting that respecting the regulating the trade with us.
And further we the aforenamed Delegates do promise and ingage with the Honourable Lawrence Armstrong; Lieutenant Governour and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie to live in peace with His Majesty's Good Subjects and their Dependants in the Government according to the Articles agreed on with Major Paul Makarene commissioned for that purpose and further to be Ratified as mentioned in the said Articles.
That this present Treaty shall be accepted Ratified and confirmed in a public and solemn manner by the Chiefs of the several Eastern Tribes of Indians included Therein at Talmouth in Casco Bay sometime in the month of may next. In Testimony whereof we have signed these presents and affixed our Seals.
Done in the presence of the Great and General Court of Assembly of the Province of Massachusetts Bay aforesaid.
Being first read distinctly and interpreted by Capt. John Gyles, Capt. Samuel Jordan and Capt. Joseph Baries, Sworn Interpreters.
Dated at the Council Chamber in Boston in New England this fifteenth Day of December Anno Dom. One Thousand Seven Hundred and Twenty Five. Annog 3 Ri Rex Georgy Magna Britania Duodecimo.
ARTICLES OF SUBMISSION AND AGREEMENT made at Boston, in New England, by Sanquaaram alias Loron Arexus, Francois Xavier and Meganumbe, delegates from Penobscott, Naridgwack, St. Johns, Cape Sables and other tribes inhabiting within His Majesty's territories of Nova Scotia or New England.
Whereas His Majesty King George by concession of the Most Christain King, made at the Treaty of Utrecht, is become the rightful possessor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia according to its ancient boundaries: We, the said Sanquaaram alias Loron Arexus, Francois Xavier and Meganumbe, delegates from the said tribes of Penobscott, Naridgwack, St. Johns, Cape Sables and other tribes inhabiting within His Majesty's said territories of Nova Scotia or Acadia and New England, do, in the name and behalf of the said tribes we represent, acknowledge His said Majesty King George's jurisdiction and dominion over the territories of the said Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and make our submission to His said Majesty in as ample a manner as we have formerly done to the Most Christian King.
And we further promise on behalf of the said tribes we represent that the Indians shall not molest any of His Majestie's subjects or their dependants in their settlements already made or lawfully to be made, or in their carrying on their traffick and other affairs within the said Province.
That if there happens any robbery or outrage committed by any of the Indians, the tribe or tribes they belong to shall cause satisfaction and restitution to be made to the parties injured.
That the Indians shall not help to convey away any soldiers belonging to His Majestie's forts, but on the contrary shall bring back any soldier they shall find endeavouring to run away.
That in the case of any misunderstanding, quarrel or injury between the English and the Indians no private revenge shall be taken, but application shall be made for redress according to His Majestie's laws.
That if the Indians have made any prisoners belonging to the Government of Nova Scotia or Acadia during the course of the war they shall be released at or before the ratification of this treaty.
That this treaty shall be ratified at Annapolis Royal.
Dated at the Council Chamber in Boston, New England, this fifteenth day of December, Anno Domini one thousand seven hundred and twenty-five, Annoq. Regni Regis Georgii, Magnae Britanniae, &c., Duodecimo.
Signed, sealed and delivered in the presence of the Great and
General Court or Assembly of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay.
AREXUS (totem) (L.S.)
FRANCOIS XAVIER (totem) (L.S.)
MEGANUMBE (totem) (L.S.)
We, the underwritten Chiefs and others of the St. Johns, Cape Sables and other tribes of Indians and inhabiting within this His Majestie's Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia having had the several articles of the within written Instrument (being a true copy of what was signed in our behalf by Sanquaaram alias Loron Arexus, Francois Xavier and Maganumbe, our delegates at the Treaty of Peace concluded at Boston) distinctly read over, faithfully interpreted and by us well understood, do hereby for ourselves and in behalf of our respective tribes consent to ratifie and confirm all the within mentioned articles and that the same shall be binding to us and our heirs forever to all intents and purposes.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have signed, sealed and delivered these presents to the Honourable Lieut.-Governor in the presence of several officers belonging to His Majestie's troops and other gentlemen underwritten.
Done at the Fort of Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia, this thirteenth day of May, in the first year of the reign of Our Sovereign Lord, George the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c., Annoq. Domini, 1728.
FRS. ALDRIGE, ) IGNACE, (totem) ) Chiefs
HEN. DANIELL, ) MICHAEL, (totem )
REY.NUGENT, ) PIERRE x PAUL
OTHO HAMILTON, ) THOMAS x________,
RICHARD BULL, ) AUGUSTINE x GREGOIRE,
JNO.HANDFIELD, ) CAPTAIN (totem) MOSES,
ROBERT WROTH, ) GUILLEAUME, x
CHAS. ALDRIDGE,) BARNABY, (totem)
L. NATTS, ) FRANCIS (totem) DE SALLE
SAML. COTTNAM, ) File de Nepavomte,
F. MANGEAN, ) FRANCOIS (totem
JOSEPH BISSELL,) MICHAEL (totem)
WM. ARMSTRONG, ) FRANCOIS x GERMAIN
FRANCIS DE SALLE (totem), )
MITSA (totem), TAGAMISH,
JOSEPH (totem) OGSTER,
JOSEPH x. ST. AUBE,
ANNAPOLIS ROYAL, Sept. 24th, l1728
JACQUES x MON ROUSSEM
HALIFAX, N.S. 30th September, 1886.
I certify that the foregoing is a true copy of a treaty made at Boston on the fifteenth day of December, A.D. 1725, with the delegates from the Indian tribes of Penobscott, Naridgwack, St. John, Cape Sable and other tribes, with the ratification on the back thereof at Annapolis Royal, dated the 30th day of May, A.D. 1728, now in possession of the Government of Nova Scotia.
THOMAS B. ,
Commissioner of Public Records, Province of Nova Scotia
ARTICLES OF SUBMISSION AND AGREEMENT made at Boston, in New England, by Sanquaaram alias Loron Arexus, Francois Xavier and Maganumbe, delegates from the tribes of Penobscott, Maridgwalk, St. Johns, Cape Sables, and other tribes of the Indians inhabiting within his Majestie's territories of Nova Scotia and New England.
Whereas, His Majestie King George, by the concession of the Most Christian King made at the Treaty of Utrecht, is become the rightful possessor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie, according to its ancient boundaries: We, the said Sanquaaram alias Loron Arexus, Francois Xavier and Maganumbe, delegates from the said tribes inhabiting within His Majestie's said territories of Nova Scotia or Accadie and New England, do, in the name and behalf of the said tribes we represent, acknowledge His said Majestie King George's jurisdiction and dominion over the territories of said Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie, and make our submission to His said Majestie in as ample a manner as we have formerly done to the Most Christian King.
And we further promise, in behalf of the said tribes we represent, that the Indians shall not molest any of His Majestie's subjects or their dependants in their settlements already or lawfully to be made, or in their carrying on their trade and other affairs within the said Province.
That if there happens any robbery or outrage committed by any of the Indians the tribe or tribes they belong to shall cause satisfaction and restitution to be made to the parties injured.
That the Indians shall not help to convey away any soldiers belonging to His Majestie's forts, but on the contrary, shall bring back any soldier they shall find endeavouring to run away,.
That in case of any misunderstanding, quarrell or injury between the English and the Indians no private revenge shall be taken, but application shall be made for redress according to His Majestie's laws.
That if the Indians have made any prisoners belonging to the Government of Nova Scotia or Accadie during the course of war they shall be released at or before the ratification of this treaty.
That this treaty shall be ratified at Annapolis Royall.
Dated at the Council Chamber at Boston, in New England, this fifteenth day of December, An. Dom., one thousand seven hundred and twenty-five. Annoq. Ri Ris Georgii Mag., Britan, &c., Duodecimo.
I, Joannes Pedousaghtigh, Chief of the Tribe of Chinecto Indians, for myself and in behalf of my Tribe, my heirs and their heirs forever, and we, Francois Aurodowish, Simon Sactawino and Jean Battiste Maddouanhook * * * * deputys from the Chiefs of the St. Johns Indians, and invested by them with full power for that purpose, do in the most solemn manner renew the above articles of agreement and submission, and every article thereof, with His Excellency Edward Cornwallis, Esquire, Cap. Gener'l and Governor in Chief in and over His majestie's Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie, Vice-Admiral of the same, Colonel in His Majestie's service and one of his bed Chamber. In witness thereof, I, the said Joannes Pedousaghtigh, have subscribed this treaty and affixed by seal, and we, the said Francois Aurodowish, Simon Sactawino and Jean Battiste Maddouanhook * * * * in behalf of the chiefs of the Indian Tribes we represent, have subscribed and affixed our seals to the same, and engage that the said Chief shall ratifie this treaty at St. Johns. Done in Chibucto Harbour the fifteenth of August, one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine.
In presence of:
The Articles of Peace on the other side, concluded at Chebucto, the fifteenth of August one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine, with His Excellency Edward Cornwallis, Esqr., Capt. General, Governour and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie,and signed by our deputies, having been communicated to us by Edward How, Esqr., one of His Majestys Council for said Province, and faithfully interpreted to us by Madame De Bellisle, inhabitant of this river, nominated by us for the purpose. We the Chiefs and Captains of the River St. Johns and places adjacent do for ourselves and our different Tribes conform and ratify the same to all intents and purposes. Given under our hands at the River St. Johns this fourth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and forty-nine, in the presence of the under written witnesses.
MICHELL (totem) NARREYONES, CHIEF
HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA, 30th September, 1886.
I certify that the foregoing document is a true copy and a facsimile of the original treaty written on parchment, made at Boston, on the 15th December, 1725, and the renewal of the same by the Indian deputies at Halifax, Nova Scotia (Chebucto) on the 15th August, 1749. Also, the ratification thereof by the Chiefs and Captains of the Tribes at the River St. John, on the 4th September, 1749. Indorsed thereon. In possession of the Government of Nova Scotia.
THOMAS B. , Commr. Public Records, Nova Scotia.
Miq'Mak Treaty of 1752
Enclosure in letter of Governor Hopson to the Right Honourable The Earl of Holdernesse 6th of Dec. 1752
Articles of Peace and Friendship Renewed between His Excellency Peregrine Thomas Hopson Esquire Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie Vice Admiral of the same & Colonel of One of His Majesty's Regiments of Foot, and His Majesty's Council on behalf of His Majesty.
Major Jean Baptiste Cope chief Sachem of the Tribe of Mick Mack Indians, Inhabiting the Eastern Coast of the said Province, and Andrew Hadley Martin, Gabriel Martin and Francis Jeremiah members & Delegates of the said Tribe, for themselves and their said Tribe their heirs and the heirs of their heirs forever. Begun made and Concluded in the manner form & Tenor following, viz.
1. It is agreed that the Articles of Submission & Agreements made at Boston in New England by the Delegates of the Penobscot Norridgwolk & St. John's Indians in the Year 1725 Ratifyed and Confirmed by all the Nova Scotia Tribes at Annapolis Royal in the Month of June 1726 and lately Renewed with Governor Cornwallis at Halifax and Ratifyed at St. John's River, now read over Explained & Interpreted shall be and are hereby from this time forward renewed, reiterated and forever Confirmed by them and their Tribe, and the said Indians for themselves and their Tribe and their Heirs aforesaid do make and renew the same Solemn Submissions and promises for the strict Observance of all the Articles therein Contained as at any time heretofore hath been done.
2. That all Transactions during the late War shall on both sides be buried in Oblivion with the Hatchet, And that the said Indians shall have all favour, Friendship & Protection shewn them from this His Majesty's Government.
3. That the said Tribe shall use their utmost Endeavours to bring in the other Indians to Renew and Ratify this Peace, and shall discover and make known any attempts or designs of any other Indians or any Enemy whatever against his Majesty's Subjects within this Province as soon as they shall know thereof and shall also hinder and Obstruct the same to the utmost of their power, and on the other hand if any of the Indians refusing to ratify this Peach shall make War upon the Tribe who have now Confirmed the same; they shall upon Application have such aid and Assistance from the Government for their defence as the Case may require.
4. It is agreed that the said Tribe of Indians shall not be hindered from, but have free liberty of hunting and Fishing as usual and that if they shall think a Truck house needful at the River Chibenaccadie, or any other place of their resort they shall have the same built and proper Merchandize, lodged therein to be exchanged for what the Indians shall have to dispose of and that in the mean time the Indians shall have free liberty to bring to Sale to Halifax or any other Settlement within this Province, Skins, feathers, fowl, fish or any other thing they shall have to sell, where they shall have liberty to dispose thereof to the best Advantage.
5. That a Quantity of bread, flour, and such other Provisions, as can be procured, necessary for the Familys and proportionable to the Numbers of the said Indians shall be given them half Yearly for the time to come; and the same regard shall be had to the other Tribes that shall hereafter Agree to Renew and Ratify the Peace upon the Terms and Conditions now Stipulated.
6. That to Cherish a good harmony and mutual Correspondence between the said Indians and this Government His Excellency Peregrine Thomas Hopson Esq. or Accadie Vice Admiral of the same & Colonel of One of His Majesty's Regiments the first day of October Yearly, so long as they shall Continue in Friendship, Receive Presents of Blankets, Tobacco, some Power & Shott, and the said Indians promise once every year, upon the said first of October, to come by themselves or their Delegates and receive the said Presents and Renew their Friendship and Submissions.
7. That the Indians shall use their best Endeavors to save the Lives & Goods of any People Shipwrecked on this Coast where they resort and shall Conduct the People saved to Halifax with their Goods, and a Reward adequate to the Salvadge shall be given them.
8. That all Disputes whatsoever that may happen to arise between the Indians now at Peace and others His Majesty's Subjects in this Province shall be tryed in His Majesty's Courts of Civil Judicature, where the Indians shall have the same benefits, Advantages & Priviledges as any others of His Majesty's Subjects.
In Faith & Testimony whereof the Great Seal of the Province is hereunto appended, and the Partys to these Presents have hereunto interchangeable Set their Hands in the Council Chamber at Halifax this 22nd day of Nov. 1752 in the 26th Year of His Majesty's Reign.
Miq'Mak Treaty of 1794
Treaty Made with Micmacs on Miramichi, 1794 By Governor William Milan and Micmac King John Julian on June 17th, 1794.
The following copy of the Treaty made with the Micmac Indians of the Miramichi and the representative of King George III was translated from the original treaty written in Micmac.
The Treaty made with the Micmac Indians and the representative of King George III of England on June 17, 1794.
Thus was agreed between the two Kings - The English King George III and the Indian King John Julian in the presence of the Governor, William Milan of New Brunswick, and Francis Julian (Governor) the brother of said John Julian, on board His Majesty's ship, that henceforth to have no quarrel between them.
And the English King said to the Indian King 'Henceforth you will teach your children to maintain peace and I give you this paper upon which are written many promises which will never be effaced.'
Then the Indian King, John Julian with his brother Francis Julian begged His Majesty to grant them a portion of land for their own use and for the future Generations. His Majesty granted their request. A distance of six miles was granted from Little South West on both sides and six miles at North West on both sides of the rivers. Then His Majesty promised King John Julian and his brother Francis Julian 'Henceforth I will provide for you and for the future generation so long as the sun rises and river flows.'
KING JOHN JULIAN
PG NOTE: This was transcribed by Abenaki Associates and is on Canada's SchoolNet with an incomplete miscelleny of Canadian and a few English treaties. I have reformateed it for legibility and corrected some typos, but Abenaki did not give the source.