This is a 1693 peace treaty between the British Crown (Mary) and the Indians of Massachusetts Bay. At this time, the Iroquois league was allies of the English, and several war leagues of other tribal confederacies had been defeated. Includes an exchange-release of hostages, trade and commerce regulation by Crown/governors, and the assumption of English jurisdiction and laws applied to the Indian nations.
The Submission and Agreement of the Eastern Indians at Fort William Henry in Pemmaguid, the 11th day of August, in the fifth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord and Lady, William and Mary, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, French, and Ireland, King and Queen, Defenders of the Faith, & c., 1693.
WHEREAS a bloody war has for some years now past been made and carried on by the Indians within the eastern parts of the said province, against their Majesties' subjects the English, through the instigation and influences of the French; and being sensible of the miseries which we and our people are reduced unto, by adhering to their ill council: We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, being Sagamores and Chief Captains of all the Indians belonging to the several rivers of Penobscote and Kennebeck, Amarascogin and Saco, parts of the said province of the Massachusets Bay, within their said Majesties' sovereignty, having made application unto his Excellency Sir William Phips, Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over the said province, that the war may be put to an end, do lay down our arms, and cast our selves, upon their said Majesties' grace and favour.
And each of us respectively for our selves, and in the name and with the free consent of all the Indians belonging unto the several rivers aforesaid, and of all other Indians within the said province, of and from Merrimack river unto the most easterly bounds of the said province: hereby acknowledging our hearty subjection and obedience unto the crown of England; and do solemnly covenant, promise and agree, to and with the said Sir William Phips, and his successors in the place of Captain General and Governour in Chief or the aforesaid province or territory, on their said Majesties' behalf in manner following, viz:
That at all time and times for ever, from and after the date of these presents, we will cease and forbear all acts of hostility towards the subjects of the crown of England, and not offer the least hurt or violence to them, or any of them, in their persons or estate: But will henceforward hold and maintain a firm and constant amity and friendship with all the English.
Item - We abandon and forsake the French interest, and will not in any wise adhere to, join with, aid or assist them in their wars or designs against the English, nor countenance, succour or conceal any of the enemy Indians of Canada, or other places, that shall happen to come to any of our plantations within the English territory, but secure them, if in our power, and deliver them up unto the English.
That all English captives in the hands or power of any of the Indians, within the limits aforesaid, shall with all possible speed be set at liberty, and returned home without any ransom or payment to be made or given for them, or any of them.
That their Majesties' subjects the English shall and may peaceably and quietly enter upon, improve, and for ever enjoy all and singular their rights of lands, and former settlements and possessions within the eastern parts of the said province of the Massachusets Bay, without any pretensions or claims by use, or any other Indians, and be in no wise molested, interrupted, or disturbed therein.
That all trade and commerce, which may hereafter be allowed between the English and Indians, shall be under such management and regulation as may be stated by an act of the General Assembly, or as the governour of the said province, for the time being, with the advice and consent of the council, shall see cause to direct and limit.
If any controversie or difference at any time hereafter happen to arise between any of the English and Indians, for any real or supposed wrong or injury done on one side or the other, no private revenge shall be taken by the Indians for the same, but proper application be made to their Majesties' government upon the place, for remedy thereof, in a due course of justice; we hereby submitting ourselves to be ruled and governed by their Majesties' laws, and desire to have the benefit of the same.
For the full manifestation of our sincerity and integrity in all that which we have herein before covenanted and promised, we do deliver unto Sir William Phipps, their Majesties' governour as aforesaid, Ahassombamett, brother to Edgeremett, Wenongahewitt, cousin to Madockawando, and Edgeremett, and Bagatawawongon, alias Sheepscoat John, to abide and remain in the custody of the English, where the government shall direct, as hostages or pledges for our fidelity, and the true performance of all and every the foregoing articles, reserving liberty to exchange them in some reasonable time for a like number, to the acceptance of the governour and council of the said province, so they be persons of as good account and esteem amongst the Indians as those which are to be exchanged. In testimony whereof, we have hereunto set our several marks and seals, the day and year first above-written.
The above-written instrument was deliberately read over, and the several articles and clauses thereof interpreted unto the Indians, who said they well understand and consented thereunto, and was then signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of us.
WASSAMBOMET of Mavidgwock
WENOBSON of Tenconnet, in behalf of Penobscot
Paquaharet, alias Nathaniel
*John Bagatawawongo, alias Sheepscoat John
*Phill, Ounsakis, Squaw
CROWN (QUEEN ANNE) TREATY OF 1713: MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE AND OTHER NEW ENGLAND TERRITORIES
Peace treaty with New England tribes, reaffirms conditions and lands reserved in 1693 Treaty, and hunting, fishing rights on their lands. Settlers not to be distured on theirs (of 1693) or in hunting and ffishing. Signed at Portsmouth., New Hampshire.
At Portsmouth, in her Majesty's Province of New Hampshire, in New England, the thirteenth day of July, in the twelfth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lady Anne, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, (1713) and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the faith, &c.
WHEREAS for some years last past We have made a breach of our Fidelity and Loyalty to the Crowns of Great Britain, and have made open Rebellion against her Majesty's Subjects, the English inhabitants in the Massachusets, New Hampshire, and other of her Majesty's Territories in New England, and being now sensible of the miseryes which We & our people are reduced thereunto thereby, We whose names are here subscribed, being Delegates of all the Indians belonging to Norrigawake, Narrakamegock, Amasaconoog, Pigwocket, Penecook, & to all other Indian Plantations situated on the Rivers of St. Johns, Pernobscot, Kenybeck, Amascogon, Saco & Merrimack, & all other Indian Plantations lying between the said Rivers of St. Johns and Merrimack, Parts of her Majesty's Provinces of the Massachusets Bay and New Hampshire, within her Majesty's Sovereignty, having made application to his Excellency, Joseph Dudley, Esquire, Captain General & Governour in Chief in and over the said Provinces. That the Troubles which we have unhappily raised or occasioned against her Majesty's subjects, the English, & ourselves, may cease & have an end, & that we may enjoy her Majesty's subjects, the English, & ourselves, may cease & have an end, & that we may enjoy her Majesty's Grace & Favour, and each of us Respectively, for ourselves & in the name & with the free consent of all the Indians belonging to the several rivers and places aforesaid, & all other Indians within the said Provinces of the Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire, hereby acknowledging ourselves the lawfull subjects of our Sovereign Lady, Queen Anne, and promising our hearty Subjection & Obediance unto the Crown of (continued) Maritimes TreatiesGreat Britain, do solemnly Covenant promise, & agree to & with the said Joseph Dudley, Esquire, Governour, and all such as shall hereafter be in the place of Captain General and Governour in Chief of the aforesaid Provinces or territories on her Majesty's behalf, in manner following. That is to say:
That at all times forever, from and after the date of these presents, we will cease and forbear all acts of hostility toward all the subjects of the Crown of Great Britain, and not to offer the least hurt or violence to them or any of them in their persons or estates, but will honour, forward, hold, & maintain a firm & constant amity & friendship with all the English, and will not entertain any Treasonable Conspiracy with any other Nation to their Disturbance.
That her Majesty's Subjects, the English, shall & may peaceably & quietly enter upon, improve, & forever enjoy, all and singular their Rights of Land & Former Settlements, Properties, & possessions, within the Eastern Parts of the said Provinces of the Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire, together with all the Islands, Islets, Shoars, Beaches, & Fisheries within the same, without any molestation or claims by us or any other Indians, And be in no wais molested, interrupted, or disturbed therein. Saving unto the said Indians their own Grounds, & free liberty for Hunting, Fishing, Fowling, and all other their Lawful Liberties & Privileges, as on the Eleventh day of August, in the year of our Lord God One thousand six hundred & ninety-three.
That for mutual Safety & Benefit, all Trade & Commerce which hereafter may be allowed betwixt the English & Indians shall be in such places & under such management & regulations as shall be stated by her Majesty's Governments of the said Provinces respectively. And to prevent mischiefs & inconveniencies the Indians shall not be allowed, for the present, & until they have liberty from the respective Governments, to come near to any English Plantations or Settlements on this side of Saco River.
That if any Controversy or Difference at any time hereafter happen to arise betwixt any of the English or Indians, for any real or supposed wrong or injury done on the one side or the other, no Private Revenge shall be taken by the Indians for the same, but proper application shall be made to her Majesty's Government, upon the place, for remedy thereof, in our Course of Justice, We hereby submitting ourselves to be ruled & Governed by her Majesty's Laws, & desire to have the protection & benefit of the same.
We confess that we have, contrary to all faith and justice, broken our articles with Sir William Phipps, Governour, made in the year of our Lord God 1693, and with the Earl of Bellemont, Governour, made in the year of our Lord God 1699, And the assurance we gave to his Excellency, Joseph Dudley, Esquire, Governour, in the years of our Lord God 1702, in the month of August, and 1703, in the month of July, notwithstanding we have been well treated by the said Governours; and we resolve for the future not to be drawn into any perfidious Treaty or Correspondence, to the hurt of any of the subjects of her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, and if we know of any such we will seasonably reveal it to the English.
Wherefore, we whose names are hereunto subscribed Delegates for the several tribes of the Indians, belonging unto the River of Kenybeck, Amarascogen, St. Johns, Saco, & Merrimack, & parts adjacent, being sensible of our great offence & folly in not complying with the aforesaid Submission & agreements, and also of the sufferings & mischiefs that we have thereby exposed ourselves unto, do, in all humble & submissive manner, cast ourselves upon her Majesty's mercy for the pardon of all our past rebellions, hostilities, and Violations of our promises, praying to be received unto her Majesty's Grace & Protection. And for & on behalf of ourselves, and of all other the Indians belonging to the several Rivers and places aforesaid, within the Sovereignty of her majesty of Great Britain, do again acknowledge & profess our hearty and sincere obedience unto the Crown of Great Britain, and so solemnly renew, ratify, and confirm all & every of the articles & agreements contained in the former and present submission.
This Treaty to be humbly laid before her Majesty, for her ratification and farther orders. In Witness whereof, We, the Delegates aforesaid, by name, Kireberuit, Iteansis, and Jackoit, for Penobscot, Joseph and Eneas, for St. Johns, Waracansit, Wedaranaquin, and Bomoseen, for Kennebeck, have hereunto set our hands & seals, the day and year first above written.
SIGNED, SEALED, & DELIVERED IN THE PRESENCE OF
CROWN (QUEEN ANNE) TREATY OF 1714: MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE AND OTHER NEW ENGLAND TERRITORIES
Seems to have been a new signing of the above 1713 treaty by some other tribes or leaders who didn'[t sign in 1713. Also signed at Portsmouth, NH, a year later.
At Portsmouth, in her Majestie's Province of New Hampshire, in New England, the 28th Day of July, in the thirteenth year of our Sovereign Lady Anne, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Queen, (1714) Defender of the Faith, &c.
The several Articles of the foregoing sheet, after a long Conference with the Delegates of the Eastern Indians, were read to them, & the sense & meaning thereof explained by two faithful, sworn Interpreters, and accordingly signed by every of the Sachems and Delegates that were not present, & had not signed the last year.
In the Presence of his Excellency the Governour, and his Excellency General Nicholson, & the Gentlemen of Her Majestie's Councills for the Provinces of the Massachusetts Bay & New Hampshire, & other Gentlemen.
SIGNED, SEALED,& DELIVERED IN PRESENCE OF US,
CROWN (QUEEN ANNE) TREATY OF 1717: MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE AND OTHER NEW ENGLAND TERRITORIES
Kennebec, Penobscot, Pequot, Saco, and other Eastern New England Tribes signed this one (with George III on an island in Massachusetts Bay , 1717. This is a reaffirmation of the 1695 treaty (above), but two commerce clauses which "are now otherwise managed" there are rejected.
George, on Arrowsick, Island, in his Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, the 12th Day of August 1717, in the fourth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France an Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c.
We, the Subscribers, being Sachems and Chief men of the several Tribes of Indians belonging to Kenneback, Penobscut, Pegwackit, Saco, and other, the Eastern Parts of his Majesty's Province aforesaid, having had the several Articles of the foregoing Treaty distinctly read and interpreted to us by a Sworn Interpreter at this time, do Approve of, Recognize, Ratify, and Confirm all and every the said Articles, (excepting only the fourth and fifth articles, which relate to the restraint and limitation of Trade and Commerce, which is now otherwise managed.)
And whereas, some rash and inconsiderate Persons amongst us, have molested some of our good fellow Subjects, the English, in the Possession of their Lands, and otherwise illtreated them; We do disapprove & condemn the same, - and freely consent that our English friends shall possess, enjoy & improve all the Lands which they have formerly possessed, and all which they have obtained a right & title unto, Hoping it will prove of mutual and reciprocal benefit and advantage to them & us, that they Cohabit with us.
In testimony and perpetual memory whereof, We have hereunto set our hands & seals, in behalf of ourselves and of the several Tribes of Indians that have delegated us to appear for, & represent them the day and year aforementioned.
NUDGGUMBOIT (X Sign)
SIGNED, SEALED, & DELIVERED IN PRESENCE OF AUGUSTIN MOXUS SON
PG NOTE: This was transcribed by Abenaki Associates and is on Canada's SchoolNet with an incomplete miscelleny of Canadian and a few English treaties. I have reformateed it for legibility and corrected some typos, but Abenaki did not give the source.